Over the last two decades there have been dramatic advances in the development of solid state qubits that can store quantum information. Of particular interest are qubits that can communicate quantum information through photons. Examples of these include atomic defects, such as nitrogen vacancies in diamond or divacancies in silicon carbide, and quantum dots. These qubits can form the basis of new technologies, such as quantum computers and quantum repeaters. However, these technologies require on-chip integration in which entanglement between qubits can be mediated by gates, i.e. integration of optical qubits with photonic gates. Such integration is challenging due to the fact that optical environments typically are only weakly tunable. We will explore new pathways to address this critical challenge.